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Fast multipole boundary element method to calculate head-related transfer functions for a wide frequency range

Publication ID 9258
Abstract Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) play an important role in spatial sound localization. The boundary element method (BEM) can be applied to calculate HRTFs from non-contact visual scans. Because of high computational complexity, HRTF simulations with BEM for the whole head and pinnae have only been performed for frequencies below 10 kHz. In this study, the fast multipole method (FMM) is coupled with BEM to simulate HRTFs for a wide frequency range. The basic approach of the FMM and its implementation are described. A mesh with over 70 000 elements was used to calculate HRTFs for one subject. With this mesh, the method allowed to calculate HRTFs for frequencies up to 35 kHz. Comparison to acoustically-measured HRTFs has been performed for frequencies up to 16 kHz, showing a good congruence below 7 kHz. Simulations with an additional shoulder mesh improved the congruence in the vertical direction. Reduction in the mesh size by 5% resulted in a substantially-worse representation of spectral cues. The effects of temperature and mesh perturbation were negligible. The FMM appears to be a promising approach for HRTF simulations. Further limitations and potential advantages of the FMM-coupled BEM are discussed.
ISSN ISBN 0001-4966
Volume 126
Page from - to 1280-1290
Publisher Month 09
Status published
Publication Reference journal article
Year of Publication 2009
Authors Kreuzer, W., Majdak, P., Chen, Z.